Iron Fish Intro

Cryptographic Primitives

JubJub Curve 

Iron Fish makes use of the JubJub curve, which is a 255-bit twisted Edwards curve with the following affine equation:

ax2+y21+dx2y2(modp)a x^2 + y^2 \equiv 1 + d x^2 y^2 \pmod{p}


  • pp: 0x73eda753299d7d483339d80809a1d80553bda402fffe5bfeffffffff00000001 (255 bits)
  • aa: 0x73eda753299d7d483339d80809a1d80553bda402fffe5bfeffffffff00000000 (a1(modp)a \equiv -1 \pmod{p})
  • dd: 0x2a9318e74bfa2b48f5fd9207e6bd7fd4292d7f6d37579d2601065fd6d6343eb1 (d10240/10241(modp)d \equiv -10240/10241 \pmod{p})

JubJub Group 

The points on the JubJub curve give origin to a finite cyclic group of order:

nn: 0x73eda753299d7d483339d80809a1d8053341049e6640841684b872f6b7b965b8 (255 bits)

With the 2-torsion point (0, 1) serving as the identity element.

This group contains a subgroup with a large prime order:

  • order (rr): 0xe7db4ea6533afa906673b0101343b00a6682093ccc81082d0970e5ed6f72cb7 (252 bits)
  • cofactor (hh): 0x08

Iron Fish operates in this large prime subgroup.


Iron Fish makes use of different generators for the JubJub group. The generators are:

NameAffine CoordinatesOrder
Spending Key Generator(0x0926d4f32059c712d418a7ff26753b6ad5b9a7d3ef8e282747bf46920a95a753, 0x57a1019e6de9b67553bb37d0c21cfd056d65674dcedbddbc305632adaaf2b530)rr
Proof Generation Key Generator(0x1457a50231cde2df704303f1e8906081adf2d038f2fbb8203af2dbefb96e2571, 0x54b6d10718df2a7adec901840f4948cc50df51eaf5a149d2467af9f7e05de8e7)rr
Public Key Generator(0x6dad65e62328d37a0daf03b547e2022b77ff8c90a9a0d8f43edcc85f4d1a44cd, 0x6996932cece1f4bbca01f5809c00eee2f0b703d53a3edd4e50951f1feff08278)rr
Value Commitment Randomness Generator(0x6800f4fa0f001cfc7ff6826ad58004b4d1d8da41af03744e3bce3b7793664337, 0x6d81d3a9cb45dedbe6fb2a6e1e22ab50ad46f1b0473b803b3caefab9380b6a8b)rr
Native Value Commitment Generator(0x66235382bd3b37417398aab3c907f5abd63c001aa39a799194d27f25df35ab48, 0x074c0767fd99d42f4808b27f848e59b348e29b1aefc3a67c6f79906c2a588644)rr
Note Commitment Randomness Generator(0x26eb9f8a9ec72a8ca1409aa1f33bec2cf0919d06ffb1ecdaa5143b34a8e36462, 0x114b7501ad104c57949d77476e262c9596b78beafa9cc44cd4fc6365796c77ac)rr

Note that these generators all generate the large prime subgroup mentioned above, so multiplication by the cofactor is not needed when performing algebra using these generators.

Summary of cryptographic schemes 

This is an overview of all the cryptographic keys and cryptographic schemes used by Iron Fish in different places. The exact details of how these are employed are laid out in Accounts, Transactions, and Blocks.


NameTypeClassical Security Level
Secret KeySymmetric key256 bits
Spending Key PairECC key pair on the JubJub group126 bits
Nullifier Key PairECC key pair on the JubJub group126 bits
Outgoing View KeySymmetric key256 bits
Incoming View KeyECC private key on the JubJub group126 bits
Transmission KeyECC public key on the JubJub group126 bits


PurposeUsed ForSchemeClassical Security Level
Key GenerationSecret KeySystem Entropy
Key DerivationAccount Keys (other than the Secret Key)Blake2b512 bits (preimage resistance) / 256 bits (collision resistance)
Authenticated EncryptionNotesChaCha20-Poly1305256 bits
HashingNullifiersBlake2s256 bits (preimage resistance) / 128 bits (collision resistance)
Digital SignaturesAuthentication of spends, outputs, and mintsRedDSA on JubJub with Blake2b126 bits
CommitmentTransaction balancingPedersen commitment on the JubJub group126 bits
Zero-Knowledge ProofingProofing of spends, outputs, and mintsGroth16 zk-SNARK on BLS12126 bits
Hash TreeMerkle Tree of NotesMerkle Tree with Pedersen Hash on the JubJub group126 bits (preimage and collision resistance)
HashingMining (until block 503337)Blake3256 bits (preimage resistance) / 128 bits (collision resistance)
HashingMining (from block 503338 onwards)FishHash128 bits

Signature Scheme 

The signature scheme used by Iron Fish is RedDSA, which is a variant of the Elliptic Curve Schnorr Signature scheme defined in the Sapling protocol (see

The hashing algorithm used in conjunction with RedDSA is Blake2b.

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